ReDSS

ReDSS quarterly update- October 2019

In this quarterly update, you will find information on the aspirations surveys in Somalia, research process in Ethiopia, refugee bill in Kenya, preparations for the Global Refugee Forum in December, key upcoming learning events and conferences, and finally resources published over the past months.

Click here for the update.

Access to shelter and services for low-income groups: lessons from Hawassa, Mogadishu and Nairobi on the politics of informal settlements and shelter access

This report provides a synthesis of key findings and lessons from a three-city study on access to shelter and basic services for low-income groups in East Africa (Nairobi, Kenya; Mogadishu, Somalia; and Hawassa, Ethiopia). Guided by political economy analysis, this paper sets out some key lessons for agencies operating in cities, highlighting why and how city dwellers make certain shelter choices, and
provides suggestions on how to respond.

  • Informal institutions and actors are key to shaping how and whether people access shelter:  The complex nature of informality may serve both to enable as well as to limit choices and opportunities for low-income groups. The huge demand for shelter and the inability of the national or local state to meet these demands have driven the growth of informal settlements and generated entire industries that both maintain and exploit vulnerable populations.
  • The ‘urban poor’ are not homogenous — risks and barriers vary between individuals and households: Low-income groups in general face the greatest challenges in accessing decent housing, but groups including women, people living with disabilities and in some cases young men experience more acute challenges and additional barriers to accessing shelter on the basis of their identity.
  • Other forms of identity are important — particularly ethnicity and migration status: In Mogadishu, an intricate hierarchy of clans strongly influences the spatial distribution of population, security of tenure, urban development and evictions. Hawassa has experienced insecurity relating to disputes over land ownership and ethnic tensions. Nairobi has a long history of politicised land deals and irregular land allocations, which have often been driven by Kenya’s ethnic politics.
  • Housing options for low-income groups are underexplored and better rental regulation is needed:  Rental housing is under explored as the most appropriate option for low-income groups, and a lack of regulation contributes to poor-quality housing and exploitation of tenants. The high cost of land and property creates informal rental markets. The relative absence of regulation and protection mechanisms for renters has fostered severe tenure insecurity and exploitation in the rest of the market, especially among poorer socioeconomic groups.
  • Poorly handled evictions can cause long-term vulnerability and undermine trust in government: Evictions are a common feature of all three cities in the study. Forced evictions are exacerbating the vulnerabilities of affected households, usually entailing costs for households, including the loss of livelihoods and social networks.
  • ‘Affordable’ housing is often inaccessible — new options for affordable finance are needed: Housing classed as ‘affordable’ is often beyond the means of the majority of city dwellers – a reevaluation of ‘affordable housing’ is needed alongside new approaches to affordable finance for housing and land. The ability of the lowest-income groups to access formal housing was extremely limited across all three cases. Previous attempts at affordable housing have been captured by the middle classes. Across all three cities, mortgage finance for low- and middle-income groups is highly constrained.
  • Empowered and organised civil society working with city governments can improve low-income housing at scale: With support, local actors can respond to their particular needs and priorities. Government funding to support community-directed upgrading or household and community plot purchase and house development can widen the scope of what low-income households and communities are able to achieve.
  • National political settlements frame city decision making, but other local and regional factors – and competing interests — must also be understood: The ‘visions’ held by national-level politicians have a significant impact on urban policy and programmes. Subsequent changes in urban infrastructure, services and form will intersect with city level politics, and may have an impact on local stability and security.

Click here for full paper.

Lessons learned from the EU REINTEG Durable solutions consortia (2017-2020)

In recent years, momentum at the political and policy levels on durable solutions has been matched by an expansion of the range and scale of durable solutions programming in Somalia. The European Union-funded RE-INTEG Programme (RE-INTEG) is a multi-year programme focused on the sustainable (re)integration of IDPs and returnees in Somalia. RE-INTEG was followed by two further durable solutions-focused programmes: the Danwadaag Solutions Consortium and the Durable Solutions Programme, funded by DfID and Danida respectively, and implemented by many of the agencies engaged in RE-INTEG.

The objective of this report is to document learning and promising practices from the EU RE-INTEG NGO-led programmes.  Its scope is limited to the programmes implemented by the Jubaland Solutions Consortium (JSC), Enhancing Integration of Displacement Affected Communities in Somalia (EIDACS), and Somaliland Durable Solutions Consortium (SDSC) consortia. The learning documented in this report focuses on the following 4 areas:

  • Programme strategy and approach, including the use of the IASC indicators
  • Programme consortium governance structures and coordination within/between consortia
  • Engagement with critical durable solutions stakeholders, particularly government representatives and displacement-affected communities (DACs)
  • Learning and programme adaptation.

Click here for the report and below for 3 case studies focusing on:

ReDSS 2019 Solutions analyses update case study extracts

In order to help you navigate the dense full Solutions analysis report that was published earlier this year, we have divided into 5 parts structured around case studies on the following durable solutions programming principles:

ReDSS Ethiopia key messages ahead of the Global Refugee Forum preparations

In partnership with its members, ReDSS has developed a key messaging document to support preparations to participate in government-led GRF consultation processes. It both serves as a guide in terms of coherent messaging during consultative processes but also to key stakeholders (donors, development and humanitarian actors, civil society etc.) to support a common agenda and encourage the development of supporting (joint) pledges and contributions. Messaging for Somalia and Kenya will be shared soon.

Adoption of durable solutions programming principles by the Federal Government of Somalia

These principles were first formulated in 2016/2017 by ReDSS and its partners. They were revised jointly with NGOs and UN agencies in 2018, coordinated by ReDSS and the Somalia UN Resident Coordinator Office with the objective to harmonize them. They draw on the partner experiences and learning in implementing durable solutions projects. Over time, these principles have proven to be a good tool for increased coherence in the design of projects and programmes. The principles have been endorsed and adopted by the Federal Government of Somalia. Click here for the programming principles.

Annual aspirations analyses to inform DS programming & policies in Baidoa, Kismayo, Mogadishu, Dollow

The Regional Durable Solutions Secretariat (ReDSS) has commissioned Impact Initiative to develop and pilot a people-centered survey methodology to understand intentions and aspirations vis-à-vis durable solutions, as well as inter-community dynamics and relations, in displacement-affected communities. This will be used annually as a longitudinal survey in Baidoa, Kismayo, Dollow and Mogadishu. Survey data will help to inform the design and adaptation of solutions-oriented policies and programming.

The objectives of the aspirations survey are to better understand:

  • the aspirations, intentions and push and pull factors of displacement affected communities
  • the underlying issues that influence processes of displacement, return and (re)integration
  • the factors that shape people’s decisions to move and the impact on the wider communities

Based on the survey findings, workshops will be conducted bringing policy makers and practitioners together to inform collective analysis/ common understanding of the different factors that shape displacement, return and (re)integration in Somalia to adapt and improve durable solutions programing:

  • What are profiles, aspirations, intentions and push and pull factors of host, returnees and IDP populations?
  • What are the underlying issues that influence processes of displacement, return and (re)integration?
  • What factors shape people’s decisions concerning displacement, return and (re)integration in these 4 locations?
  • What is the impact of displacement, return and (re)integration on the wider community?
  • Priorities and recommendations would also be used to inform and contribute to National Development Plan, draft National Policy on Internal Displacement, local development and urbanization/space planning documents and other appropriate policies.

The information coming from the survey will be reviewed together with stakeholders to inform a common understanding and develop joint analysis and recommendations to adapt programs. The aspirations survey is not intended to monitor the 28 IASC/ReDSS solutions framework indicators. This is done through the solutions analysis using secondary data available. The survey will not be able to inform IDP figures in the locations as only selected displacement affected communities will be part of the exercise.

Click here for the one pager, click here a comparative analysis and summary presentations of the findings from Kismayo, Baidoa and Mogadishu. For more information, kindly contact Rufus Karanja r.karanja@regionaldss.org.

ReDSS Update on the Global Refugee Forum

Click here for a special update, you will find information on the preparations for the Global Refugee Forum (GRF), recent IGAD 2nd Inter-Ministerial Stocktaking Meeting and other upcoming events and useful resources.

ReDSS Global Refugee Forum Briefing Paper

Click here for a ReDSS briefing paper that outlines the background, opportunities and suggestions for strategic civil society engagement ahead of the Global Refugee Forum.

Online evaluation on ReDSS research and learning products

ReDSS would like to invite you to participate in a very short online evaluation that we are conducting in order to help us assess how our various partners are using our research and learning products. Please click here to participate in the evaluation. It takes only 5 min max!

This feedback is critical to ensure that we are able to measure the impact of the tools and to further improve them based on your needs.

We look forward to your participation and feedback!