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Supporting adaptive management: monitoring and evaluation tools and approaches

Political economy and discourse on displacement and solutions | December 2019 | ODI | Regional | Briefing Paper

This working paper introduces a set of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) tools and approaches, discussing their potential usefulness in supporting adaptive management in development and humanitarian programmes. It emphasises adaptive programmes characterised by complex aspects, such as: (1) they are innovative; (2) they have uncertain pathways for change; or (3) they operate in uncertain or unstable environments.

Durable solutions in Somalia: Moving from policies to practice for IDPs in Mogadishu

Internal displacement | December 2019 | Refugee International | Somalia | Research studies and reports

There is some good news to report from Somalia. The government, at both federal and municipal levels, has made great strides in developing policies and frameworks that aim to protect the rights of internally displaced people (IDPs) and promote lasting, durable solutions for them, including through local integration in urban areas. The key now is to implement those policies in an effective way.

Financing Refugee Hosting Contexts

Political economy and discourse on displacement and solutions | December 2019 | OECD | Regional | Briefing Paper

Protecting and supporting refugees is an important responsibility of the international community. The Global Compact on Refugees (GCR) was proposed in 2018 to establish a more predictable and equitable sharing of burdens and responsibilities among United Nations Member States when it comes to fulfilling these obligations. This working paper presents and analyses the findings of a survey circulated to members of the OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) between July and September 2018. The survey investigated trends in official development assistance (ODA) and plans for future funding to programmes and projects that support refugees and their host communities, as well as other, non-funding efforts and responses that DAC members are making in support of refugees. The findings of this paper will establish a baseline for monitoring progress toward “funding and effective and efficient use of resources” as one of the key tools for meeting the commitments of the GCR. The paper examines some of the strengths and challenges of current donor practices, and recommends a set of priorities to guide future donor support and engagement in order to promote good donorship and to support the international community in meeting the GCR’s objectives.

Refugee Displacement Development Digest

Political economy & discourse on displacement & solutions | November 2019 | R3D Ethiopia | Ethiopia | Newsletters

This first issue of Ethiopia’s Refugee Displacement Development Digest (R3D) which summarizes 18 projects and programmes. As commitments continue to be made, especially around the Global Refugee Forum (GRF), Ethiopia will surely continue to attract support for its proactive commitment to the GCR/CRRF – both as a responsible refugee-hosting nation, and as a leader in the Horn of Africa region. The next edition of this Digest is bound to show an increase in levels of partnerships, and, moreover, definitive tangible results for refugees and the Ethiopian communities that generously host them.

The Kalobeyei Model: Towards Self-Reliance for Refugees?

Refugee economies | October 2019 | Oxford RSC | Kenya | Research studies and reports

This report outlines a conceptual model and indicators for measuring refugee self-reliance, and applies it to the Kalobeyei settlement and Kakuma refugee camps context. The Kalobeyei settlement was opened in Turkana County in Kenya in 2016 with the intention of promoting the self-reliance of refugees and the host population and delivering integrated services to both. Its development is now guided by the Kalobeyei Integrated Social and Economic Development Programme (KISEDP), led by the Government of Kenya (GoK), the Turkana County Government, UNHCR, and partners. KISEDP envisions a range of innovative, market-based approaches to refugee protection that diverge from the conventional aid model implemented in Kakuma. These include cash-based programmes to meet housing, nutritional and other material needs, training to capitalise on the skills and entrepreneurial potential of refugees and hosts, and agricultural projects to promote dryland farming and household ‘kitchen gardens’. This report is based upon a 3-year study following newly arrived refugees integrated into the new Kalobeyei settlement and the old Kakuma refugee camp since 2016. The newly arrived refugees were allocated between the two contexts based on their date of arrival. In the study, we follow newly arrived South Sudanese refugee in both Kalobeyei and Kakuma in order to compare outcomes over time, and identify what difference the Kalobeyei settlement makes in comparison to the Kakuma model. We also follow newly arrived Ethiopian and Burundian refugees within Kalobeyei. The report covers two waves of data collection with the same randomly sampled respondent population, carried out in 2017 and 2018.

Doing Business in Kakuma: Refugees, Entrepreneurship, and the Food Market

Refugee economies | October 2019 | Oxford RSC | Kenya | Research studies and reports

This report draws upon a business survey with food retailers to assess the impact of the ‘Bamba Chakula’ model of electronic food transfers and business contracts. The Kakuma refugee camps have become popularly associated with entrepreneurship. In 2016, the Kalobeyei settlement was opened 3.5 kms away from the Kakuma camps, with the intention of promoting the self-reliance of refugees and the host population, and delivering integrated services to both. Its development is guided by the Kalobeyei Integrated Social and Economic Development Programme (KISEDP), which offers a range of innovative, market-based approaches to refugee protection that diverge from the conventional aid model implemented in Kakuma. There have been few studies that examine the emergence of refugee-led markets at the business level, whether in the Kakuma camps, in the Kalobeyei settlement, or elsewhere. In order to address this gap, our research aimed to study one particular sector: the food market. This sector is of particular interest because it is such a significant part of economic life in refugee camps, and because it is heavily shaped by the modalities of food assistance provided by the international community. Kakuma is currently undergoing a gradual transition from in-kind food assistance to cash-based assistance, and as an interim step, it has introduced a food provision model called Bamba Chakula.

Returning to Stability? Refugee returns in the Great Lakes region

Political economy & discourse on displacement & solutions | October 2019 | IRRI | Regional | Research studies and reports

The departure point of this research project was the need to better understand the interactions between return migration, political processes and conflict dynamics in areas of return, and to go beyond humanitarian approaches, to analyse the political dimensions of return. Aside from the logistics of crossing borders and the alleviation of immediate material needs, what does return mean – both for returnees and for ‘stayees’ – people who didn’t migrate – in the communities to which they return? How does return migration affect, or how is it affected by, social relations, power dynamics, political processes and conflicts in areas of return?

Informing durable solutions for internal displacement in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan

Internal displacement | October 2019 | World Bank | Somalia | Research studies and reports

This study helps close data gaps by using micro-level data to profile IDPs. The report uses micro-data, defined as individual—and household-level—data that are collected directly through personal interviews. Comprehensive micro data surveys cover IDP populations in four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan. Non-displaced populations, including host communities, are also covered for comparison. Identical survey instruments are used for both displaced and non-displaced groups to draw clear comparisons of the two. In addition, refugees from three of these countries (Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan), who are currently residing in camps in Ethiopia, are surveyed.

Access to shelter and services for low-income groups: lessons from Hawassa, Mogadishu and Nairobi on the politics of informal settlements and shelter access

Urban solutions and programming | October 2019 | IIED & Tana | Somalia | Synthesis report

The field research took place in 2018–2019. Fieldwork drew on a shared methodology that included key informant interviews and focus group discussions with a wide range of stakeholders, including national government, municipal authorities, financial actors, local leaders and civil society, brokers and developers, and local community members. This was supplemented with additional city-specific methods such as market surveys or social mapping, selected to fill data gaps or for context-specific reasons. More details on methodology can be found in the project summary report.

Shelter provision in East African Cities: understanding politics for inclusive cities

Urban solutions and programming | September 2019 | IIED & Tana | Regional | Summary report

This research project examines systems of shelter provision in three East African cities: Nairobi in Kenya, Hawassa in Ethiopia, and Mogadishu in Somalia. It was designed to identify policy-relevant, locally driven solutions to improve shelter at scale for vulnerable groups, including low-income women and men, displaced people and people with disabilities. The methodology underpinning the study recognises that gender, poverty, displacement and ethnicity can act as major axes of discrimination that impede access to land, shelter and services in East African cities. By exploring each city’s history, political settlement and housing variations, this project provides a set of in-depth city studies that offer new insights to inform more inclusive, affordable shelter interventions in East Africa.