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Land and Conflict in Jubaland Root Cause Analysis and Recommendations

Urban solutions and programming | May 2018 | UN HABITAT | Somalia | Policy briefs

The aim of the study is to investigate the land-related causes of conflict in the Jubaland State of Somalia. The study findings are expected to guide the work of the UN in peace building and land conflicts management and to inform land policy processes and other land governance interventions in Jubaland and Somalia as a whole.

Access to shelter and services for low-income groups: lessons from Hawassa, Mogadishu and Nairobi on the politics of informal settlements and shelter access

Urban solutions and programming | October 2019 | IIED & Tana | Somalia | Policy briefs

The field research took place in 2018–2019. Fieldwork drew on a shared methodology that included key informant interviews and focus group discussions with a wide range of stakeholders, including national government, municipal authorities, financial actors, local leaders and civil society, brokers and developers, and local community members. This was supplemented with additional city-specific methods such as market surveys or social mapping, selected to fill data gaps or for context-specific reasons. More details on methodology can be found in the project summary report.

Accessing land and shelter in Mogadishu

Urban solutions and programming | April 2019 | IIED & Tana | Somalia | Policy briefs

In Mogadishu, access to and ownership of land is a significant driver of conflict. Contestation over this resource continues to affect how Mogadishu’s residents acquire and own shelter and property, especially since establishing legal ownership and competing clan considerations complicate the situation. Disagreements over land and property are further fueled by other factors such as parallel formal and informal governance and justice systems and high influxes of IDPs into the city, many of whom are from minority clans and marginalized ethnic groups, and who – politically – are considered to affect the clan configuration of the City. Mogadishu’s poor and vulnerable residents are most at risk in terms of access to secure shelter. Many of them, most notably the IDPs, live on land with high tenure insecurity. Low income groups and IDPs lack the networks, resources and ability to navigate the systems that facilitate access to land, shelter, finance and services. Entering into informal rental arrangements leaves them at risk of sudden and forced evictions.

Shelter in Mogadishu

Urban solutions and programming | September 2019 | Tana | Somalia | Policy briefs

When seeking shelter in Mogadishu, the biggest discriminating factor is wealth. Any person who cannot afford property or rent can be considered vulnerable, because they will have limited options and will most likely have to find shelter in the city’s informal settlements or poorer sections of the city. IDPs make up
the majority of the informal settlement residents, but the city’s poor also reside there for a variety of reasons: affordability of shelter, access to services, and security.

Shelter provision in Mogadishu

Urban solutions and programming | September 2019 | IIED & Tana | Somalia | Research studies and reports

This working paper is one of a series of three reports covering the main findings from a research project led by IIED on shelter in East Africa. This research project examines systems of shelter provision in three East African cities: Nairobi, Hawassa and Mogadishu. It was designed to identify policy-relevant, locally driven
solutions to improve shelter at scale for vulnerable groups, including low-income women and men, displaced people, and people with disabilities. The methodology underpinning the study recognises that gender, poverty, displacement and ethnicity can act as major axes of discrimination that impede access to land, shelter and services in East African cities. The research has explored the three cities’ histories, political settlements and variations in housing, in order to generate new insights that can inform more inclusive, affordable shelter interventions. In addition, the research process has provided opportunities for knowledge sharing and spaces for dialogue between communities and local officials, using shelter as an entry point to foster more responsive local governance.

Somali Poverty and Vulnerability Assessment

Political economy & discourse on displacement & solutions | April 2019 | World Bank | Somalia | Research studies and reports

The World Bank implemented the second wave of the Somali high frequency survey (SHFS) in 2017-2018. This report is based on the most recent and first extensive household survey, wave 2 of the SHFS. The report is organized into six chapters. The first chapter presents an updated profile of monetary and nonmonetary dimensions of poverty for the Somali population, including the nomadic population. The second chapter explores in more detail spatial variation, with a focus on urbanization. The third chapter examines the impact of the 2016-2017 drought on livelihoods to identify the populations at risk and the factors that protected households against its negative effects. The fourth chapter provides an in-depth analysis of the internally displaced populations to identify displacement-related needs and to inform durable solutions. As a reaction to the analysis of poverty and vulnerabilities, the fifth chapter focuses on social protection as a means of promoting equity and building resilience against the effect of shocks on livelihoods. Similarly, the sixth chapter examines remittances and their role for livelihoods and resilience.

The Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework: Responsibility-sharing and self-reliance in East Africa

Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework | September 2019 | ODI HPG | Regional | Research studies and reports

Three years after the adoption of the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, a review of developments in four countries that rolled out the CRRF approach – Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda – reveals that progress on ‘easing the burden’ and opening up paths to refugee self-reliance has been limited or, in some cases, is even sliding back. This paper draws on four country papers (in Ethiopia (Asfaw Nigusie and Carver, 2019), Kenya (Crawford and O’Callaghan, 2019), Rwanda (Crawford et al., 2019) and Uganda (Crawford et al., 2019b)), developed for the IKEA Foundation, to provide a stock-take on progress under the GCR in East Africa. It considers how unrealistic assumptions underpining the Compact are butting up against reality in these host countries and suggests measures that would improve the prospects for responsibility-sharing and refugee self-reliance.

Internally Displaced Persons: towards more effective international protection and durable solutions

Political economy and discourse on displacement and solutions | September 2019 | Wilton Park | Somalia | Conference reports

Durable solutions for internal displacement should be planned for at the outset, and interventions should focus on both short-term needs and longer-term resilience. Durable solutions should remain dynamic in response to fluid displacement contexts. The design and implementation of workable solutions requires reliable data and analysis, but these present significant challenges. Categorisation is particularly problematic. Categories are useful to indicate specific vulnerabilities and protection needs, but they can stigmatise people and create or exacerbate tensions with other populations and thus be detrimental. IDP protection should therefore remain wary of creating new categories of citizens.

Like a Drop of Water on a Fire

Internal displacement | September 2019 | Refugee International | Ethiopia | Research studies and reports

In the Somali region of eastern Ethiopia, drought internally displaced persons (IDPs)—people who have been forced to relocate because of the effects of severe drought—are now a forgotten population. More than 500,000 IDPs in the country have been displaced by drought and other climate-related causes, and almost 350,000 of them reside in the Somali region. Although they received some humanitarian assistance, including food and water, in the immediate wake of the devastating 2015–2016 drought, most of that initial support has ended. Now the situation is getting worse, especially for women and girls.

Towards sustainable urban development in Somalia and IDP durable solutions at scale

Urban solutions and programming | September 2019 | UNRCO/DSI | Somalia | Research studies and reports

This report reviews Somalia’s current patterns of urbanization and displacement, and provides tailored recommendations to local, State and Federal State authorities, as well as to UN and stakeholders working in Somalia. Rapid, spontaneous patterns of urbanization in Somalia, driven in part by interests of land-owners and needs of displaced communities, entrenches the dynamics of clan and
conflict in the evolving form of cities, with the risk of perpetuating and increasing instability. As Somalia’s population is expected to become predominantly urban after 2026, the coming years provide a critical opportunity to set a new course of well-planned and managed urbanization, yielding economic diversification, improved social equality, stabilization and resilience, through national and federal state level policies, implemented in cities by inclusive urban planning processes and inclusive, representational governance. The report, serves to stimulate discussion on urbanization, and while recognizing the need for additional studies to explore viable solutions to enable return to rural areas, provides recommendations to address the pertinent challenge of achieving durable solutions at scale for internally displaced people in cities – particularly those for whom the option of rural return is unlikely in the foreseeable future